What is the 'component' that helps Android and PC communicate?

One thing I learned since I had my own Android Phone and started to experiment it, is that I'm safe to format ALL of the partitions. Even if the recovery is lost, and the android is dead boot, I can still use SP Flash Tools or Odin or whatever there is to 'restore' or 'install' ROMs in Android phone.

But one thing has been bugging me. That is, I want to learn what is the component that helps the Android Communicate with the PC.
I want to ask if that component is in one of the partitions and I might make my phone really DEAD when I get to touch it... Or it's a separate component that I can't touch, therefore, I'll be safe...

Another thing is, is the USB Debugging Mode just in the software-part? Or I need to turn that on so my phone can communicate with the PC even if it's dead?

I'm sorry if my words are too complicated... I've got trouble understanding it on my own... but if you got it, please tell me so! I need more knowledge when it comes to android, I might save phones when I learn more... Thank you very much!

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